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麻省理工学院2004春季课程:神话、仪式和象征主义(Myth, Ritual, and Symbolism, Spring 2004)

根据麻省理工学院“开放式课程网页”整理

http://lucifer.fantasy.tw/cocw/mit/Anthropology/21A-212Spring2004/CourseHome/index.htm

2004春季课程:神话、仪式和象征主义(Myth, Ritual, and Symbolism, Spring 2004)

师资
讲师:
James Howe 教授 
上课时数
教师授课:
每周2节
每节1.5小时 
程度
大学部 
翻译:蒋馥蓁
编辑:陈玉仑

课程大纲

概论
Overview
人类(human beings)是工具制造者同时也是象征创造者,我们理解世界并形塑生命,很大程度依靠着将人事物赋予意义,将其整合进象征模式中,以及创造精心设计的象征行为模式。在本堂导读课程中,我们要探讨象征如何被创造与结构化,如何利用并在世界不同领域产生意义,如何被纳入政治、家庭与生命循环,而我们又是如何解释它们的。

本课程将讨论一系列有关象征主义的主题:

隐喻及其他比喻语言。
象征主义中的原本内容,特别是动物与人体。
宇宙观与繁复的象征体系。
仪式,包括象征性治疗与法术。
故事与人生。
神话学。
本课程着重于象征的形式及其分析,而非思想史或者是关于象征研究在社会理论的位置;当然在讨论上述六大主题内容时,理论家、学派、思想史会占大多数,尽量不着墨于理论辞汇。指定读物有文章或书籍的部分章节,作者主要是人类学家,内容则涵盖古今不同社会。除了阅读指定文章、参与课堂讨论,同学们整学期还要缴交数篇短文和田野报告。

Susan Sontag的《疾病的隐喻》是指定读本。而涵盖不同层面象征主义的其他指定阅读资料,会在课堂里讨论。

课程是以讲授与讨论交叉进行。每堂课都有指定的阅读资料,同学请事先阅读并准备讨论。出席率(是指出席与讨论的表现)会严重影响期末成绩,学期初的出席率也会列入考量。

本课程没有挡修条件。开放给所有学生。

作业是文章和田野报告数篇。没有期末考。
 
 
Overview
Human beings are symbol-making as well as tool-making animals. We understand our world and shape our lives in large part by assigning meanings to objects, beings, and persons; by connecting things together in symbolic patterns; and by creating elaborate forms of symbolic action and narrative. In this introductory subject we consider how symbols are created and structured; how they draw on and give meaning to different domains of the human world; how they are woven into politics, family life, and the life cycle; and how we can interpret them.

The semester will be devoted to a number of topics in symbolism.

Metaphor and Other Figurative Language
The Raw Materials of Symbolism, especially animals and The Human Body
Cosmology and Complex Symbolic Systems
Ritual, including Symbolic Curing and Magic
Narrative and Life
Mythology
The course will focus primarily on symbolic forms and their analysis, rather than on intellectual history or the place of symbolic studies in social theory. Theorists, schools of thought, and intellectual history will be discussed for the most part in the context of the six topics listed above, and technical vocabulary will be kept to a minimum. Readings will consist primarily of articles and chapters, most of them by anthropologists, covering a wide variety of cases from traditional and modern societies. Students, in addition to keeping up with the readings and participating in class discussions, will be expected to write a series of short essays and field studies over the course of the semester.

There is one required text, Illness as Metaphor / AIDS and its Metaphors, (by Susan Sontag 1978, 1989, Doubleday). Otherwise, course readings consist of articles and chapters on different aspects of symbolism, which will be discussed in class.

Classes will consist of a mixture of lecture and discussion. Each class is keyed to a set of readings, and it is crucial that students keep up with the readings and be prepared to discuss them in class. Class participation — in terms of both regular attendance and participation in discussion — will count strongly towards the final grade. In the first weeks of the semester attendance will be taken.

There is no prerequisite: this subject is open to any student.

Written work will consist of a series of short papers, divided between essays and field reports. There is no final exam.
 
教学时长

课 课程单元 重要日期
1 导论
Introduction 
2 文化、记号与象征
Culture, Sign and Symbol 课堂缴交作业:对Susan Sontag《疾病的隐喻》的心得报告(2页)
Response essay, on Susan Sontag\'s Illness as Metaphor (2 pages) due in class
3 讨论《疾病的隐喻》
Discuss Illness as Metaphor  
4 隐喻及其他比喻
Metaphor and Other Tropes 
5 更多的比喻形式
More Tropes 
6 解释隐喻
Interpreting Metaphor 
7 隐喻的帝国主义
Metaphorical Imperialism 
8 动物
Animals 
9 动物与分类
Animals and Classification 作业:搜集比喻修辞(一页)
Trope Quick-pick (1 page) due
10 公鸡及其解释
Roosters and Interpretation 
11 人体
The Human Body 
12 更多的躯体More Bodies 
13 分类与宇宙观
Classification and Cosmology 作业:文章修改
Essay with rewrite due
14 仪式
Ritual 
15 生命过程与宗派
sPassage and Persuasion 
16 仪式与权力
Ritual and Power 
17 法术与仪式性治疗
Magic and Ritual Curing 比喻的田野调查作业(3-4页)
Tropes field assignment (3-4 pages) due
18 故事与生命
Narrative and Life 
19 故事与支配
Narrative and Control 
20 民间故事与形式
Folktale and Form 第二份田野调查作业(3-4页)
Second field assignment (3-4 pages) due
21 小红帽与佛洛依德式的狼
Little Red Riding Hood and the Freudian Wolf 
22 当金发女郎遇上伊底帕斯
Goldilocks Meets Oedipus 作业:故事(3页)
sEssay on Narrative (3 pages) due
23 土狼与恶魔的新娘
Hyenas and Demon Brides 
24 美洲虎、吸血鬼与小明星
Jaguars, Vampires, and Starlets Proppian故事分析(3页)
Proppian Analysis of Narrative (3 pages) due
25 电影里的神话
Movies on Myth 
26 小结
Wrap up 作业:结构性神话的分析草稿(2页)
Structural Myth Analysis Sketch (2 pages) due

课堂指定读物
Readings by Class Session

课 课程单元 阅读资料
1 导论
Introduction 
2 文化、记号与象征
Culture, Sign and Symbol 
3 讨论《疾病的隐喻》
Discuss Illness as Metaphor Sontag, Susan,《疾病的隐喻》,New York: Doubleday, 1990.
Sontag, Susan. Illness as Metaphor. New York: Doubleday, 1990.
4 隐喻及其他比喻
Metaphor and Other Tropes Cohn, Carol. 〈知识分子理性世界的性与死〉.《符号》 2, no. 4 (1987): 687-718.
Cohn. "Sex and Death in the Rational World of Defense Intellectuals." Signs 2, no. 4 (1987): 687-718.

Gregor, Thomas.〈我的影子愈离愈远…〉,《美国人类学家》9 (1981): 709-720.
Gregor, Thomas. "Far, Far Away My Shadow Wandered…" American Ethnologist 9 (1981): 709-720.

Ohnuki-Tierney, Emiko.〈结构、事件与历史隐喻:日本史中的稻米与身分〉,《皇家人类学会刊》1, no. 2 (1995): 227-248.
Ohnuki-Tierney, Emiko. "Structure, Event, and Historical Metaphor: Rice and Identities in Japanese History." J. of Royal Anthro. Inst. 1, no. 2 (1995): 227-248.
5 更多的比喻形式
More Tropes Foong Khong, Yuen.《战争的比附:韩国、慕尼黑、奠边府与越南1965的裁决》Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992, pp. 174-190. (节录)
Foong Khong, Yuen. Analogies at War: Korea, Munich, Dien Bien Phu and the Vietnam Decisions of 1965. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992, pp. 174-190. (Excerpts)
6 解释隐喻
Interpreting Metaphor 
7 隐喻的帝国主义
Metaphorical Imperialism Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson.《我们赖以维生的隐喻》Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980, pp. 3-32. (Excerpts)
Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. Metaphors We Live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980, pp. 3-32. (Excerpts)

Ohnuki-Tierney, Emiko.〈猴子作为一种隐喻? 〉.《人》25, no. 1 (1990): 89-104.
Ohnuki-Tierney, Emiko. "Monkey as Metaphor?" Man 25, no. 1 (1990): 89-104.
8 动物
Animals Douglas, Mary.〈Leviticus的憎恶〉.《纯净与危险》. New York: Routledge, 1966, pp. 41-57.
Douglas, Mary. "The Abominations of Leviticus." In Purity and Danger. New York: Routledge, 1966, pp. 41-57.

Ritvo, Harriet.〈当心恶狗〉.《动物权:维多利亚时期的英国人与其他动物》. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987, pp. 167-202.
Ritvo, Harriet. "Cave Canem." In The Animal Estate: The English and Other Creatures in the Victorian Age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987, pp. 167-202.
9 动物与分类
Animals and Classification Tambiah, S. J.〈动物精于思考也善于作茧自缚〉.《文化、思维与社会行为》. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985, pp. 169-211.
Tambiah, S. J. "Animals Are Good to Think and Good to Prohibit." In Culture, Thought, and Social Action. Cambrdge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985, pp. 169-211.
10 公鸡及其解释
Roosters and Interpretation Geertz, Clifford.〈深层展演:Balinese的斗鸡〉.《神话、象征与文化》. Edited by Clifford Geertz. Norton, 1971, pp. 1-29.
Geertz, Clifford. "Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight." In Myth, Symbol, and Culture. Edited by Clifford Geertz. Norton, 1971, pp. 1-29.

Dundes, Alan.〈吊带裤的生殖器形象〉.《斗鸡》. Edited by Alan Dundes. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1994, pp. 241-275.
Dundes, Alan. "Gallus as Phallus." In The Cockfight, A Casebook. Edited by Alan Dundes. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1994, pp. 241-275.
11 人体
The Human Body Turner, Terence.〈Tchikrin:一个巴西中部部族与其身体纹饰的象征语言〉.《自然史》(Oct. 1969): 50, 52, 57-59 and 70.
Turner, Terence. "Tchikrin: A Central Brazilian Tribe and its Symbolic Language of Bodily Adornment." Natural History (Oct. 1969): 50, 52, 57-59 and 70.

Firth, Raymond.〈头发作为私人资产与公共象征〉.《象征》. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1973, pp. 262-298.
Firth, Raymond. "Hair as Private Asset and Public Symbol." In Symbols. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1973, pp. 262-298.

Hertz, Robert.〈右手的优越〉.《死亡与右手》. Aberdeen: Cohen & West, 1960 [1909], pp. 89-113.
Hertz, Robert. "The Pre-eminence of the Right Hand." In Death and The Right Hand. Aberdeen: Cohen & West, 1960 [1909], pp. 89-113.
12 更多的躯体
More Bodies Martin, Emily.〈科学与女性身体〉.《身体/政治:女性与科学论述》. Edited by Mary Jacobus et al. New York: Routledge, 1990, pp. 69-79,
Martin, Emily. "Science and Women\'s Bodies." In Body/Politics: Women and the Discourses of Science. Edited by Mary Jacobus et al. New York: Routledge, 1990, pp. 69-79.

Gilman, Sander.〈犹太人的脚〉.《犹太人的身体》. New York: Routledge, 1991, pp. 38-59.
Gilman, Sander. "The Jewish Foot." In The Jew\'s Body. New York: Routledge, 1991, pp. 38-59.

Gusterson, Hugh.〈核子战争、波斯湾湾战争与逐步消失的身体〉.《城市与文化研究学刊》2, no. 1 (1991): 45-52.
Gusterson, Hugh. "Nuclear War, the Gulf War, and the Disappearing Body." J. of Urban and Cultural Studies 2, no. 1 (1991): 45-52.

Foucault, Michel.〈被非难的肉体/温驯的肉体〉.节录自〈规训与惩罚〉.引自《Foucault读本》in 1984, Paul Rabinow编. New York, Pantheon, 1984, pp. 170-187.
Foucault, Michel. "The Body of the Condemned/ Docile Bodies." Excerpts from Discipline and Punish, in 1984, The Foucault Reader. Edited by Paul Rabinow. New York, Pantheon, 1984, pp. 170-187.
13 分类与宇宙观
Classification and Cosmology Durkheim, Emile, and M. Mauss.《原始分类》. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966, pp. 3-26 and 42-66. (Excerpts)
Durkheim, Emile, and M. Mauss. Primitive Classification. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966, pp. 3-26 and 42-66. (Excerpts)

Fox, James.〈二元分类与原始象征〉.《象征主义的解释》. Roy Willis编. New York: Wiley, 1975, pp. 99-132.
Fox, James. "On Binary Categories and Primary Symbols." In The Interpretation of Symbolism. Edited by Roy Willis. New York: Wiley, 1975, pp. 99-132.
14 仪式
Ritual Turner, Victor.〈两可之间和两者之间:通过仪式的识阈面向〉.《象征的森林》. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1967, pp. 93-110.
Turner, Victor. "Betwixt and Between: The Liminal Phase in Rites de Passage." In The Forest of Symbols. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1967, pp. 93-110.

Gusterson, Hugh.〈核武测试—科学实验作为一个政治仪式〉.《赤裸的科学:疆界、权力与知识的人类学研究》. New York: Routledge, 1996, pp. 131-146.
Gusterson, Hugh. "Nuclear Weapons Testing — Scientific Experiment as Political Ritual." In Naked Science: Anthropological Inquiries into Boundaries, Power, and Knowledge. New York: Routledge, 1996, pp. 131-146.

Goffman, Erving.《庇护所》. New York: Doubleday, 1961, pp. 4-35.
Goffman, Erving. Asylums. New York: Doubleday, 1961, pp. 4-35.
15 生命过程与宗派
Passage and Persuasion 无
none
16 仪式与权力
Ritual and Power Cohn, Bernard.〈维多利亚时期印度的权威展现〉.《传统的发明》. Eric Hobsbawm, and Terence Ranger编. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992, pp. 165-209.
Cohn, Bernard. "Representing Authority in Victorian India." In The Invention of Tradition. Edited by Eric Hobsbawm, and Terence Ranger. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992, pp. 165-209.

Howe, James.〈猎狐仪式〉.《美国民族志学家》8, no. 2 (1981): 278-297.
Howe, James. "Fox Hunting as Ritual." American Ethnologist 8, no. 2 (1981): 278-297.
17 法术与仪式性治疗
Magic and Ritual Curing Turner, Victor.〈Ndembu医师的医疗行为〉.《象征的森林》. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1967, pp. 359-393.
Turner, Victor. "An Ndembu Doctor in Practice." In The Forest of Symbols. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1967, pp. 359-393.

Holloman, Regina.〈仪式开放与个人转化:Esalen的生命仪礼〉.《美国人类学家》76, no. 2 (1974): 265-278.
Holloman, Regina. "Ritual Opening and Individual Transformation: Rites of Passage at Esalen." American Anthropologist 76, no. 2 (1974): 265-278.
18 故事与生命
Narrative and Life Bruner, Jerome.〈守法与艺文〉.《制造故事:法律、文学与人生》. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002, pp. 37-62.
Bruner, Jerome. "The Legal and the Literary." In Making Stories: Law, Literature, and Life. Cambrdge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002, pp. 37-62.

Mattingly, Cheryl.《戏剧治疗与临床情节:经验的叙事结构》. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp. 72-103. (Excerpts)
Mattingly, Cheryl. Healing Dramas and Clinical Plots: The Narrative Structure if Experience. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998, pp. 72-103. (Excerpts)
19 故事与支配
Narrative and Control Howe, James, and Joel Sherzer.〈多毛鱼友人与响尾蛇友人〉.《人》21 (1986): 680-696.
Howe, James, and Joel Sherzer. "Friend Hairyfish and Friend Rattlesnake." Man 21 (1986): 680-696.

Ewick, Patricia, and Susan Silbey.〈颠覆性故事与支配性传说:传说故事的社会学〉.《法律与社会评论》29, no. 2: 197-226.
Ewick, Patricia, and Susan Silbey. "Subversive Stories and Hegemonic Tales: Toward a Sociology of Narrative." Law and Society Review 29, no. 2: 197-226.
20 民间故事与形式
Folktale and Form Propp, Vladimir.《民间故事型态学》. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1968, pp. 19-37 and 96-99.
Propp, Vladimir. Morphology of the Folktale. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1968, pp. 19-37 and 96-99.

Colby, Benjamin.〈爱斯基摩民间故事语法选析〉.《美国人类学家》75 (1973): 645-660.
Colby, Benjamin. "A Partial Grammar of Eskimo Folktales." American Anthropologist 75 (1973): 645-660.
21 小红帽与佛洛依德式的狼
Little Red Riding Hood and the Freudian Wolf Bettelheim, Bruno.《使用魔法:童话故事里的意涵及重要性》. New York: Vintage, 1975, pp. 3-19 and 166-183.
Bettelheim, Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales. New York: Vintage, 1975, pp. 3-19 and 166-183.

Dundes, Alan.〈小红帽故事的心理分析〉.《格林兄弟及其童话》. James M. McGlathery 编. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.
Dundes, Alan. "Interpreting Little Red Riding Hood Psychoanalytically." In The Brothers Grimm and Folktale. Edited by James M. McGlathery. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.
22 当金发女郎遇上伊底帕斯
Goldilocks Meets Oedipus Leach, Edmund.〈神话的结构〉.《李维史陀》. 原出版: New York : Viking, 1974
Leach, Edmund. "The Structure of Myth." In Claude Lévi-Strauss.

Hammel, Eugene.〈结构分析的神话:李维史陀与三只熊〉.《人类学的模组》. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1972.
Hammel, Eugene. "The Myth of Structural Analysis: Lévi-Strauss and the 3 Bears." In Modules in Anthropology 25, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1972.
23 土狼与恶魔的新娘
Hyenas and Demon Brides Beidelman, Thomas.〈土狼与兔子〉.《非洲》31, no. 1 (1961): 61-74.
Beidelman, Thomas. "Hyena and Rabbit." Africa 31, no. 1 (1961): 61-74.

Hymes, Dell.〈如男子般外出工作的妻子〉.《徒劳无功的说明:本土美国民族志诗学论文集》.Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981, pp. 274-299.
Hymes, Dell. "The Wife who Goes out Like a Man." In In Vain I Tried to Tell You: Essays in Native American Ethnopoetics . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981, pp. 274-299.
24 美洲虎、吸血鬼与小明星
Jaguars, Vampires, and Starlets Howe, James, and Lawrence Hirschfeld.〈星之女孩的后代:一个关于男人、女人、母系认同与歌唱的神话〉.《美国民间故事集刊》94, no. 373 (1981): 292-322.
Howe, James, and Lawrence Hirschfeld. "The Star-Girls\' Descent: A Myth about Men, Women, Matrilocality, and Singing." J. of Am. Folklore 94, no. 373 (1981): 292-322.
25 电影理的神话
sMovies on Myth 无
none
26 小结
Wrap up 无
none